Lithospermum latifolium (American Gromwell)
|Also known as:||American Stoneseed, Broad-leaved Gromwell|
|Habitat:||part shade, shade; rich woods, thickets, shaded river banks|
|Bloom season:||May - June|
|Plant height:||16 to 30 inches|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||none|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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Single, short-stalked flowers in the upper leaf axils and at the tips of branching stems. Flowers are ¼ to 1/3 inch across, pale yellow to creamy white, with 5 oval petals fused at the base and forming a short tube. Inside the tube are 5 stamens surrounding a short style.
The calyx behind the flower has 5 narrow, hairy lobes about as long as the tube. Branches elongate with maturity, with flowers mostly open at the end of a branch while fruit forms in the axils below it.
Leaves and stems:
Leaves are alternate, 2 to 5 inches long and ¾ to 2 inches wide, lance to egg-shaped, toothless, tapering to a pointed tip, with prominent veins and little or no stalk. The upper leaf surface is darker green with sparse scattered hairs, the lower surface lighter green with short, dense white hairs. Stems are light green and covered in short, stiff hairs. Plants are erect at the base, typically with spreading arch-like branches in the upper plant, but may be unbranched.
American Gromwell is the least common of Minnesota's native puccoons with infrequent and scattered populations, mostly in east central and southeastern forests and less frequently in scattered woodlots in west central counties. Populations have likely declined over time due to loss of its woodland habitat to development, lumbering, agriculture and woodland invasive species like buckthorn and garlic mustard.
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Photos by K. Chayka and Peter M. Dziuk taken at Richard T. Anderson Conservation Area, Hennepin County. Photos courtesy Brian O'Brien taken at Sakatah Lake State Park, Le Sueur County.
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