Lupinus polyphyllus (Large-leaved Lupine)

Plant Info
Also known as: Western Lupine, Big-leaf Lupine, Garden Lupine
Family:Fabaceae (Pea)
Life cycle:annual, perennial
Origin:Western US
  • Invasive - ERADICATE!
Habitat:part shade, sun; fields, roadsides
Bloom season:May - July
Plant height:2 to 4 feet
Wetland Indicator Status:GP: none MW: FACU NCNE: FACU
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

Pick an image for a larger view. See the glossary for icon descriptions.

Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: irregular Cluster type: raceme Cluster type: spike

[photo of flowers] A spike-like raceme 6 to 18 inches long of ½-inch pea-shaped flowers on stalks about ½ inch long. Flowers are typically blue to violet, but may be pink, white, or 2-tone. The upper petal (standard) curls or folds back on the sides and is a bit smaller than the lateral wings below it. The raceme may be tightly packed or looser, the flowers spiralling or nearly whorled around the stem.

Leaves and stem: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf type: compound Leaf type: palmate

[photo of leaves] Leaves are palmately compound in groups of 9 to 17. Leaflets are 2 to 5 inches long, to 1 inch wide, toothless, hairless on the upper surface, silky hairy on the underside, pointed at the tip, tapering at the base, on a long stalk. Stems are smooth and green.

Fruit: Fruit type: capsule/pod

[photo of fruit] Fruit is a densely hairy cylindrical pod 1 to 1½ inches long.


Large-leaved Lupine is native to the Western US and in its native habitat, pretty consistently has blue-violet flowers. It was introduced to Minnesota by gardeners, and is also the dominant parent of a popular cultivar known as the Russell hybrid, which has additional colors including white, pink, red, purple, and yellow as well as bi-colored flowers. Both the straight species and hybrid have not only been known to escape cultivation, but were intentionally planted along roadsides, especially along the north shore of Lake Superior, where large mono-cultures have been formed and are spreading west and south. Apparently they did same thing in New Zealand, where it has also become invasive, and rumor has it L. polyphyllus has been introduced to Iceland with similar results (heavy sigh). Yes, it can be quite striking and many people have said how pretty those roadsides look, but that doesn't make it any less destructive.

Of note is the scarcity of herbarium records of this species; using those alone would make this pretty uncommon in Minnesota, which is far from the truth. The weed tracking system EDDMapS increases its range dramatically and adding reports from iNaturalist take it even farther west and south. Our own distribution map only shows a small percentage of populations reported on those systems; there are dozens more.

A similar species is the MN native Wild Lupine (Lupinus perennis), which is an overall smaller plant with 7 to 11 leaflets, and whose natural range is primarily limited to southeastern and east central Minnesota.

Native Plant Nurseries, Restoration and Landscaping Services ↓

Map of native plant resources in the upper midwest

  • Natural Shore Technologies - Using science to improve land and water
  • Minnesota Native Landscapes - Your Ecological Problem Solvers
  • Spangle Creek Labs - Native orchids, lab propagated
  • Prairie Restorations - Bringing people together with the land
  • Landscape Alternatives

More photos

Photo by K. Chayka taken in Aitkin and Lake counties. Photos by Peter M. Dziuk taken in Aitkin and St. Louis counties and in a private garden in Anoka County..


Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Mavis - Ely, MN
on: 2011-05-14 04:48:53

I have seen them along ditches and roadsides near Ely in June.

Posted by: Henry - Minneapolis
on: 2011-06-29 10:31:35

Why does the USDA list bigleaf lupine as native in Minnesota?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2011-06-29 13:09:38

The USDA Plants maps are pretty outdated and there does not seem to be a way to correct them, which is why we started making our own maps earlier this year. The MN DNR is a better source to determine what is native and not, and their big list-o-plants marks Lupinus polyphyllus as not native. It is a western species that's been planted here. The native lupine is an eastern species, where MN is on the western edge of its natural range.

Posted by: Leona - Duluth
on: 2011-07-10 11:59:39

We saw TONS of it along the North Shore!

Posted by: Erin - big lake
on: 2011-07-16 22:22:59

Broke my heart to read that this is not native. I have some in my garden! I guess it's time to weed....

Posted by: ckt - Grand Marais MN
on: 2011-07-27 17:45:41

I LOVE THIS FLOWER!!! We first started seeing it in our area about 20 years ago. The seeds scatter themselves when they pop open, but we helped them along by collecting and scattering where we wanted them to grow. Now we have a huge area at our cabin north of Grand Marais that is just covered with them. They are so beautiful and the fragarance is delightful!!

Posted by: Micah - NE Minnesota
on: 2011-08-05 02:11:55

This was a very big year for lupines in NE Minnesota all along Hwy 61 and inland. Although it is an invasive species I do think they are very pretty.

Posted by: Joel - Wisconsin
on: 2012-05-22 15:18:17

Hi all. Do you also have sundial lupine, Lupinus perennis, in Minnesota? That species is native in Wisconsin. It would be a shame to accidently rip up sundial lupine mistakenly. Joel

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2012-05-22 18:27:12

Joel, take a look: all Lupinus in MN

Posted by: Ellen - Cotton
on: 2014-06-26 16:25:46

Is it legal to dig Lupine from ditches to replant in my yard?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2014-06-28 07:37:52

Please don't spread this around intentionally. It does enough of that on its own.

Posted by: Mike - Brainerd
on: 2014-07-09 12:16:17

If these are so invasive, then why in the heck are they being sold in seed packs at the store in "MINNESOTA" where unknowing gardeners can mistakenly plant them.? Sounds to me like DNR is not doing their job...!

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2014-07-09 13:44:36

Mike, a lot of people think the DNR has any control over what plants or seeds are sold in Minnesota. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) should be the focus of your ire - they are the governing agency for the nursery trade. They too easily cave into industry pressures to sell anything and everything in the state and are accountable to no one. They are, of course, the Dept. of AGRICULTURE, not the Dept. of Environment.

Posted by: Carol - Lake Vermilion, Tower, MN
on: 2015-07-17 17:12:50

We have the non-native lupines growing on our septic mound. We are trying to control by cutting the seeds but they are spreading too rapidly. Will this cause a problem for our septic mound? If so, do you have any ideas of how we can safely remove them?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2015-07-19 11:19:28

Try herbicide, or hand pulling if you're opposed to chemical treatment.

Posted by: Deb - Rothsay, MN Wilken County
on: 2016-03-20 22:03:08

What is the harmful effect that Lupine cause? the butterflies seem to love them. I have them in my garden and have a heck of a time trying to keep them alive! I love them, but I have not seen any large amounts anywhere. I am surprised that all the synthetic chemical spraying that is done doesnt kill them in the roadsides. Thank you.

Posted by: Beverly - Eagan, MN and Duluth, MN
on: 2016-06-13 18:25:52

I also have the question of why the lupines a problem? What do they hurt; do they kill other plants? Thank you for your answer.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2016-06-13 19:19:58

The non-native lupine displaces native plants.

Posted by: Willow - Cass County
on: 2016-06-15 13:11:53

Growing on mounds of discarded dirt near my house. Huge, huge plants. Near Leech Lake.

Posted by: Renee
on: 2017-01-04 20:11:31

Sadly there is a lot of ignorance concerning invasive species and none more than about the big leaf lupine. Initially I spread them around my yard, then spent lots of time eradicating them and will kill all big leaf lupine I ever come across. And by the way, have you seen them after bloom? Fuugggly.

Posted by: Martha - Shakopee
on: 2017-07-11 10:07:13

I am not ignorant about what invasive species can do, but I am curious as to what, exactly, the invasive Large-leaved Lupines are displacing. What measurable harm have they done? What other native species are at risk or have actually been harmed? I was just all over the roads on the North Shore and in the National and State Forests up there and saw other wildflowers and plants thriving next to and even amongst the Lupines. Does the harm they cause outweigh their attraction? They definitely lure visitors up to the North Shore area. The Lupines, themselves, have become an attraction for some people.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2017-07-11 21:50:22

Martha, the value to people is insignificant, particularly if it's only aesthetic. It's the value to the ecosystem that really matters. Virtually all of the "wildflowers" now seen along the north shore are non-native invasive species. Gone is the high diversity of native habitat, displaced by a handful of exotic species that have limited value to our native insects and other wildlife.

Posted by: Mitchell R
on: 2018-05-09 10:41:08

I read that this variety of lupine fools the Karner Blue butterfly into laying eggs on this plant but the caterpillars cannot eat the leaf and starve. Is this knowledge confirmed?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2018-05-14 18:31:39

Mitchell, it is unlikely a Karner blue will lay eggs on any old lupine - it needs a specific habitat (oak savanna) for its mating ritual and this non-native lupine is not normally present there.

Posted by: Phillip - Grand Marais
on: 2019-04-03 13:31:08

This spring 2019 the city of of Grand Marais Minnesota put up welcome banners with a painting of lupine on them. They hung one on nearly every lamp post down town. It's sad to see the ignorance people have towards the plants that surround them.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2019-04-03 14:37:53

Phillip, unfortunately the city (and others on the north shore) see it as marketing for tourists: come see the pretty wildflowers. It doesn't matter that almost any flowering plant you see along roadsides from Duluth to Grand Portage are weeds, many of which are invasive. And it's getting worse every year. :-(

Posted by: Angie - Bachman's
on: 2019-06-05 15:51:03

I swear I have seen these plants being sold at Bachman's. They have more leaves than the native kind. Are they able to sell it even though it's invasive?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2019-06-05 19:42:20

Angie, the nursery trade is free to sell anything and everything that isn't specifically listed by the MN Dept. of Agriculture as some level of noxious weed. Regrettably, this lupine isn't on any of those lists.

Posted by: Mary Essila - Roadsides near Bear Head Lake State Bear near Ely, MN
on: 2019-06-29 22:45:14

This year the lupines seem to be everywhere! They are taking over. Sad to see.

Posted by: Tina Hegg Raway - Grand Marais
on: 2019-07-01 15:29:43

So, say I was ready to eradicate all of the invasives on my property, such as this type of lupine. Since my entire yard, field, and ditch are almost 100% full of various invasive plants listed on your Invasives page, what natives would you suggest I plant that can survive and take over and how would you suggest I go about it? It almost seems impossible for the average property owner. Won't more invasives just continue to take over the same space immediately? I'd love to know what can be done in a real and practical way.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2019-07-01 20:01:26

Tina, contact a gardening organization like Wild Ones, or a restoration specialist such as Prairie Restorations/Boreal Natives. They can help.

Posted by: Laura Butterfield - Ely
on: 2019-09-11 15:29:01

I agree with Renee, if the harm they cause to native plants and wildlife isn't enough for you to consider not propagating them, consider the fact that they become quite unattractive once they go to seed.

Posted by: Jeffrey Flory - Duluth
on: 2020-02-17 15:53:35

Hope this helps. A source I stumbled upon said research has found that Garden Lupine is not edible to the endangered Karner blue butterfly and that it and its hybrids with Wild Lupine can fool the adults to lay eggs on their plants and that when the caterpillars hatch, they either starve to death or are poisoned by eating this invasive plant:

Designing Gardens with Flora of the American East By Carolyn Summers

Posted by: gary - Carlton County
on: 2021-05-14 15:53:57

I have this plant growing along my driveway. It arrived as seeds incorrectly labeled as wild lupine. I'm in the process of eliminating it which is a hard job. Also, I've seen scattered plants locally that appear to have been intentionally planted.

Posted by: Anne - North of Grand Rapids
on: 2021-06-12 12:59:43

How can I safely get rid of purple lupine that has taken over one of my gardens? It was about 6 plants last year and this year it is about triple the number! I like the look and all, just want fewer of them!!!!

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2021-06-12 15:17:56

Anne, this is a prolific spreader. You may regret ever letting it in your garden in the first place. Try digging it out. And dead-head spent flowers so no seed is produced.

Posted by: Patience Popovich - Oak Grove
on: 2021-09-16 09:47:17

I have seen these beauties along the ditches of the north shore. I was sad to learn they were not native, but now have the true native lupine growing in my wildflower garden. Of note-I saw someone on Etsy from Minnesota selling large leaved Lupine seeds with the statement that they are a "North American Native Wildflower". Such as this only perpetuates this misconception along with spreading the seeds even more.....

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2021-09-16 09:57:43

Patience, technically the Etsy seller is correct - this is native to North America. Just not to Minnesota. I hope you were able to send that person a message asking them to qualify their statement. Sadly, many who live in the area where this is widespread are only interested in its aesthetic value to humans. :(

Posted by: Brittney - Pine County
on: 2022-06-14 15:57:33

If I am hand-pulling invasive plants to remove them, what should I do with them afterward? I've never known if you should just discard them like weeds from your garden, or if there was something specific that must be done to ensure it doesn't grow back.

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2022-06-14 17:51:02

Brittney, what I do with garlic mustard is uproot it, pull off any flowers then leave the stems there to compost. If it has already gone to seed, carefully cut off the top of the stem just below the seed and either throw it in the fire pit or bag it and put it in the trash. If your county has a yard waste site, you might be able to take it there because their compost is probably heat-treated and will kill the seed.

Posted by: Andy - St. Louis County-Ely
on: 2022-07-01 09:04:05

Lots on local roadsides that I have not inspected closely. Isolated patch on edge of our woods which I am pulling. Does not appear to be perennis, but all purple so likely not Russell cultivar and at least so far not wildly invasive.

Posted by: CarolAnn Hook - Shakopee...and Iceland
on: 2022-07-02 08:51:39

I just wanted to confirm your report about Iceland. When I was visiting a couple of years ago, the mountainsides were covered with lupine. It looked beautiful, but I quickly learned that there is a lot of concern that native species will have little opportunity to display the exotic plants once they are so firmly entrenched and established.

Posted by: Patrick - Northfield
on: 2023-05-09 16:17:27

Just bought one at the local nursery figuring it was native. Going to pot it up and see if it will survive in the kitchen window.

Posted by: Paul Riley - Rochester
on: 2023-06-20 00:48:48

Note: All comments are moderated before posting to keep the riff-raff out. Read that: All comments are censored to keep the truth out. Truth Is all life forms on earth deserve a chance to thrive wherever they can adapt. Leave it to government to try and stop evolutionary progress.. This type of ignorant know it all narcissistic compassion always leads to failure and destruction.. Why don't you just go and shoot some more wolves? Science listens and disseminates all viewpoints in the search for truth, lies censor.

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2023-06-20 06:11:48

Paul, Minnesota Wildflowers does not censor truth, just spammers. I might agree with you up to a point, but in the case of this lupine and other invasive species, they are not here due to a natural migration, but due to the hand of man. Human destruction of habitat and the introduction of invasive species has had a detrimental effect on local ecosystems and biodiversity. These matter to me. Do they not matter to you?

Posted by: Jeff - Ely, two harbors, beaver bay, silver bay
on: 2023-06-20 21:28:11

Yup saw these flowers all over the road side from two harbors to past ely by the boundary waters...from what I am reading it's a beautiful native plant killer...I wonder If it would outcompete creeping charlie? I mean I don't know which would be worse in my back yard near the twin cities X_X...but it sucks they are invasive

Posted by: pat - Cambridge
on: 2023-06-29 18:33:48

I was given some seeds. Hoe can I tell if they are from a true native lupine?

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2023-06-29 19:00:59

Pat, you could grow some in a pot and see what emerges.

Posted by: Trudy - Two Harbors
on: 2024-06-12 18:31:31

Wild Lupine in full bloom from Duluth to Two Harbors as of June 12, 2024.

Posted by: Diane Smith - seen in Sudbury, Ontario Canada
on: 2024-06-17 11:45:30

I don't understand why they are added to the "invasive" plant list. They only last 3 weeks and help feed bees and hummingbirds in the early season. The Ferns you see along roadways should then be considered as "invasive"?

Post a comment

Note: All comments are moderated before posting to keep the riff-raff out. An email address is required, but will not be posted—it will only be used for information exchange between the 2 of us (if needed) and will never be given to a 3rd party without your express permission.

For info on subjects other than plant identification (gardening, invasive species control, edible plants, etc.), please check the links and invasive species pages for additional resources.


Note: Comments or information about plants outside of Minnesota and neighboring states may not be posted because Id like to keep the focus of this web site centered on Minnesota. Thanks for your understanding.