Trifolium repens (White Clover)

Plant Info
Also known as: Dutch Clover
Family:Fabaceae (Pea)
Life cycle:perennial
  • Weedy
Habitat:shade, sun; lawns, fields, roadsides, open woods
Bloom season:May - October
Plant height:3 to 6 inches
Wetland Indicator Status:GP: FACU MW: FACU NCNE: FACU
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

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Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: irregular Cluster type: round

[photo of flowers] Round flower head ½ inch across densely packed with tiny white pea-shaped flowers, on a slender smooth stalk about 3 inches long that emerges directly perpendicular to the creeping horizontal stems at ground level. The heads are generally held about an inch or more higher than the thick carpet of surrounding leaf faces. Flowers are tiny, the upper petal (standard) is oval-lance like, the lateral paddle shaped wings below it angle out widely with a small keel exposed in the center. Petals are white, fading to a dirty pink with age. The calyx tube holding the flower is hairless, greenish white with green toothed lobes.

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: alternate Leaf type: compound Leaf type: palmate

[photo of leaves] Leaves are palmately compound in 3s, on a 1 to 3-inch stalk, alternately attached and perpendicular to the stem running along the ground. Leaflets are broadly oval to nearly round, about ½ inch diameter, finely toothed, rounded at the tip and slightly tapered toward the base, very commonly with a white crescent across the middle of the leaflets but not always. Stems are smooth, growing horizontally on soil surface, 4 to 12 inches long, rooting down at the nodes.


The native range of White Clover is Europe to western Asia and into north Africa but has been introduced as a forage species for livestock throughout the world. While more regional varieties likely existed naturally, today there are many “cultivars” that express size differences as well as drought or cold temperature tolerances, plus a few “ornamentals” for the garden trade. Regardless of herbarium records, it is highly doubtful this species does not persist (un)naturally in every county in the state. Similar species is the less ubiquitous Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum), which is a more upright plant, without the crescent shape on the leaflets.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka taken in Ramsey and Aitkin counties. Photos by Peter M. Dziuk taken in Anoka County.


Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: Elizabeth - My backyard!
on: 2011-06-15 15:58:50

I LOVE white clover! I am planting it now in an area of my yard where nothing at all will grow. We currently have some patches of white clover, and it is so pretty, and does not seem like a "weed" in my lawn. It is a GREAT nitrogen-fixing agent for lawn grass.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2011-06-15 18:02:24

I will just note that if the only thing you are interested in is a boring bluegrass lawn (and endless mowing duties), then there probably isn't much I could say to change your mind about white clover. But if you are open minded then you might consider replacing some of that bluegrass with native grasses, sedges and wildflowers that would not only be relatively care-free, but also support native insects, butterflies, birds, and on up the food chain. There are many natives that do well in poor soil.

Posted by: Erica - Minneapolis
on: 2014-04-17 15:59:01

I wish to have a dutch white clover lawn

Posted by: Khatti - Brown County
on: 2014-05-28 17:06:57

Because white clover is a nitrogen fixer I'm thinking of planting it in my cabbage patch to help the cabbages along and counteract the beating the soil takes from cabbages. Anyone think of a reason why this is a bad idea?

Posted by: Jake - Morrison County
on: 2015-03-02 16:11:04

I have never planted white clover in our yard but, about every 3 years, a patch of it blooms. While it's blooming, I don't even mow it because it adds beauty to the lawn. If this is suppose to be a perennial, why doesn't it bloom every year? This spring I plan on actually planting more of this near the road where there is little hope of growing grass.

Posted by: Debbie - St.Louis Park
on: 2015-05-01 22:28:14

I hear some bee keepers are promoting planting white clover to support bees. Are there a Minnesota native plants that will work just as well?

Posted by: Lynne - STACY
on: 2020-05-04 18:26:15

We have a largely wooded yard but a little over 2 acres. I am thinking of white clover because of lawn mowing, Tired of repairing them, our dog and we are planting to attract pollinators. We have planted many native pollinating plant to attract bees, birds and butterflies. That still leaves us with a large area to mow. How do you prepare the ground to seed it? Also one large area is completely taken over by creeping charlie. Will the clover be able to force out the creeping charlie? As a child on a farm I have great memories of the clover in our yard so feel connected to it. Any help appreciated

Posted by: John Deitering - Buffalo
on: 2020-09-04 10:24:58

how often does dutch white clover bloom?...spring or all summer? If I mow my bee lawn of white clover, will it eventually bloom on a shorter height? My wife does not like tall clover, but I am insisting that if we keep mowing it to 4" or 5", it will never bloom.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2020-09-04 18:51:56

John, bee lawns made up of non-native white clover aren't nearly as good for pollinators as using native plants. I recently saw a video of someone with a small native plant garden across the street from a park with one such "bee lawn". There was not a single pollinator on the clover, where his small garden was loaded. Something to consider...

As far as mowing, the general recommendation for maximum value of bee lawns is increase mowing height and decrease mowing frequency.

Posted by: Dan - Minneapolis
on: 2022-06-08 09:46:24

Love this site! My current gardening approach is incremental, eradicating Invasives immediately, replacing Weedy non-natives over time. My latest focus, after last summer, and global weather changes, is drought tolerant plants and garden design.

Posted by: K - Kelly Lake
on: 2022-07-03 18:41:34

I've seen these almost everywhere I've traveled, and it grows abundantly in my yard.

Posted by: Lesli Haines - Southeast MN
on: 2022-07-07 17:45:24

Where can I purchase white clover seed? I would like to plant it between my rows of sweet corn as a living mulch.

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2022-07-07 18:59:41

Lesli, we do not condone planting white clover for any reason. Having said that, there are some "bee lawn" mixes that include white clover, but we don't recommend them, either.

Posted by: Rebecca Ervasti - Chisago County
on: 2022-07-11 18:03:25

I was planning to purchase PT799 Microclover from Pro Time and work on replacing my lawn; then I see that white clover is an invasive species. What would you recommend as a lawn replacement? I live on the lake and while I have native plantings on the lake shore, I want an ecofriendly lawn that requires little mowing and no watering, and won't grow so high as to disturb the neighbors. Please help?

Posted by: K Chayka
on: 2022-07-11 18:53:31

Rebecca, if you're only interested in the height and maintenance, Pennsylvania sedge could be a good replacement. Depending on soil, moisture and light conditions, buffalo grass might also work. Mix in some low-growing forbs such as pussytoes, violets, wild strawberry and Prunella for extra pollinator benefit. All natives!

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