Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's Breeches)

Plant Info
Also known as:
Family:Fumariaceae (Fumitory)
Life cycle:perennial
Habitat:part shade, shade; rich woods
Bloom season:April - May
Plant height:4 to 12 inches
Wetland Indicator Status:none
MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):Minnesota county distribution map
National distribution (click map to enlarge):National distribution map

Pick an image for a larger view. See the glossary for icon descriptions.

Detailed Information

Flower: Flower shape: irregular Cluster type: raceme

[photo of flowers] 3 to 14 white, occasionally pink, stalked flowers hanging down in a raceme at the end of a naked stem that rises above the leaves. The raceme may be erect but often leans or arches over. Individual flowers are about ¾ inch long with 2 opposing spurs that give the flower a triangular to arrowhead shape in outline. There are 2 pale yellow lobes at the base of the flower that open up like wings, revealing the stamens and style.

Leaves and stems: Leaf attachment: basal Leaf type: compound Leaf type: lobed

[photo of leaves] Leaves are basal, usually 2 per flowering stem, compound, thrice divided into lacy, narrowly oblong to linear segments. Leaflets are up to 1¼ inch long and 1 inch wide; leaf color is gray-green to bluish-green. Stems are smooth and usually brown.

Fruit: Fruit type: capsule/pod

[photo of fruit] Fruit is a bean-like capsule about ½ inch long and tapering at both ends. Inside are kidney-shaped seeds about 2 millimeters long.


A widespread species in Minnesota, Dutchman's Breeches is one of the heralds of spring. Similar species is Squirrel Corn (Dicentra canadensis), which is limited to the southeast corner of the state and has virtually identical leaves but more heart-shaped flowers with rounded spurs.

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More photos

Photos by K. Chayka taken at Coon Rapids Dam Regional Park, Anoka County. Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken near Reshanau Lake, Anoka County, and in Goodhue County.


Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

Posted by: mike h
on: 2009-05-13 10:45:55
I've got thousands of these in the woods behind my house
Posted by: Nancy - Brainerd
on: 2010-04-29 17:05:49

I have these all over my backyard. They are so pretty, I wish they came in different colors. They resemble a butterfly to me.

Posted by: Pam - Stanchfield
on: 2010-05-05 02:58:34

Saw the first bloom on 5/3/10.

Posted by: mike - camden state park lynd mn
on: 2010-05-24 15:10:39

they are there in early spring! have to look close they are so small

Posted by: L schwartz - Zumbrota
on: 2011-05-04 19:11:28

05/04/2011 Many in bloom at the Zumbrota covered bridge park

Posted by: New Flower Spotterr - Hastings-Dakota County
on: 2011-05-04 21:46:32

CP Adams Park (in scientific and natural area on roadside)

Posted by: Laura - Redwood Falls, Ramsey Park
on: 2012-04-08 14:25:19

They are blooming in the lower camping grounds SE corner at the base of big trees

Posted by: Tess - Dayton
on: 2012-04-27 19:51:43

How hardy if these plants are move.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2012-04-28 09:31:15

Tess, if you transplant when they are dormant they should do fine in their new location, assuming it's a suitable habitat.

Posted by: Janelle - Glendalough State Park
on: 2012-05-04 09:31:48

Found these growing throughout Glendalough State Park (Battle Lake, Minnesota)in the woods April 30th-May 3rd 2012

Posted by: Lou - Moose Lake, MN
on: 2012-05-31 17:43:35

Beautiful to see in the early spring. A walk in the woods and a view of early flowering plants can make anyone happy

Posted by: Bonnie - Redwood Falls, Ramsey Park
on: 2013-05-12 08:29:16

Found by my great granddaughter. Sat May 11th. Really beautiful.

Posted by: Mark - Frontenac State Park
on: 2013-05-13 07:51:22

Abundant on South end of bluff trails in Frontenac State Park, 12 May 2013. Some blooms are done - maybe 1 week of display left. Blooms are much less luxuriant than in past years - perhaps due to the unusually cold April with multiple "restarts" of warm-up and melting, only to have it snow again. Flowers are small but exquisite, typically in rows of 5 or so on a single stem.

Posted by: Nick - Lutsen, Cook County
on: 2013-05-26 14:12:56

Many of these blooming on Oberg Mountain today. One of the few ground-covering plants that are.

Posted by: Pat - Minnetrista
on: 2014-02-03 12:10:18

I have, as well as do most Minnesotans, Dutchman's Breeches growing in our areas. The leaves are quite telling as well as the flower. My confusion is comparing the leaf of the Dutchman's Breeches with the leaf of the Dicentra canadensis (squirrel corn). They appear identical in your photos. Can you clarify this for me? Thank you.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2014-02-03 12:22:04

Pat, the foliage is pretty much identical between the two species; observe the flowers to distinguish one from the other. Having said that, squirrel corn is limited to the SE counties so where in the state you see these leaves will help with an ID, too.

Posted by: John - Crosby Farm Park St. Paul
on: 2015-04-13 14:01:34

Saw them growing on a hillside on the north side of the lake in the park. What a cool surprise!

Posted by: Bonny - Twin Cities
on: 2015-04-17 16:02:08

I just purchased two plants. Is it okay to plant now (April 17)or should I keep them in my flower shed until the weather is consistently warmer. I have the right kind of soil and habitat. Thank you in advance.

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2015-04-19 12:46:24

Plant it, Bonny - this species actively grows and blooms at this time of year, not when the ground is warmer.

Posted by: Mary - Minneapolis
on: 2015-04-24 10:54:49

They are blooming by the bike path on the west side of Lake Harriet as of April 24,2015. There's even a pink one. I have a patch of white Dutchman's Breeches in my garden that I moved from my childhood home. They are a cheery sign of spring, but you need to keep track of their location, because they disappear soon after blooming.

Posted by: Kimberly - Cottonwood County
on: 2016-04-16 10:50:38

Pat's Grove County Park has several hundred plants.

Posted by: John - Crosby Park St. Paul
on: 2016-04-28 23:48:27

There is a beautiful colony of these plants on the slopes of the river valley near the ponds. Bloodroot, Anemones, Marsh Marigolds and Skunk Cabbage plants are all nearby too. A riot of color!

Posted by: Barbara - Brooklyn Park
on: 2017-04-24 17:30:27

I have foliage and they used to bloom. Why did they stop & how can I get them to bloom again?

Posted by: Mary - Winona
on: 2017-04-25 19:19:08

This is the first time I've ever seen this. Was walking around the lake path and looked down to see a small patch of these beauties!

Posted by: Dorina L - LaCrosse Wi
on: 2017-06-29 11:48:50

Have a small patch and want to move them-have found a bunch of pinkish corms where they grow-is that the basis of the plant?Was planning to just dig all the soil out in the area and transplant it all-as i am not sure what to look for once the leaves have died back. Have loved these since I first saw them on Grandma's farm in Bemidji and around my home in rural madison area. the patch I have are volunteers.

Posted by: Jessica - Byron
on: 2018-05-02 14:58:42

These are in bloom in abundance all over the trails at Oxbow Park in Byron, MN this week! Especially along the Zumbro Trail and Maple Trail. And along parts of the Yeager and other trails. But particularly the woody trails that follow the river.

Posted by: Anne B. - Wright Co. /Maple Lake
on: 2018-05-10 22:27:23

Found this blooming in the woods at Camp Courage near Cedar Lake.

Posted by: Markus Ironwood - Along the trails between Minnihaha Falls and Pike Island.
on: 2019-04-29 01:12:19

Found all along the trails between Minnihaha Falls and Pike Island.

Posted by: Carol - Plymouth
on: 2019-04-29 09:48:50

I planted Dutchman breeches years ago. A few leaves come up but that is all. What can I do to get them to grow & bloom? They are in the shade.

Posted by: Marty Cormack - Root River Park - Olmsted County
on: 2020-04-22 21:07:58

I spotted a single Dutchman's Breeches blooming at Root River Park. In the coming weeks there should be a lot more, I have seen them in more abundance in early May there.

Posted by: Genevieve - Watertown
on: 2020-04-22 21:49:53

Stopped mowing our wooded lawn, and these little guys popped up from beneath the leaves (which we also didn't rake). The neighbors might grump, but we're letting things go in a moderate way. Happy to learn these are flowers, because they're everywhere suddenly.

Posted by: Rachel Kienitz - Blue Earth
on: 2020-04-29 11:48:03

There is Dutchman's Breeches blooming at Steinberg Park, along the Blufftop Trial. The blooms are pink/purple.

Posted by: Lindsay - Wahkon
on: 2020-05-03 07:58:40

Thousands on a wooded island, blooming right now! Always a fun little find in spring!

Posted by: Ron Johannsen - Trenton Lake Freeborn
on: 2021-04-15 19:26:42

Millions blooming

Posted by: Deb DeGrood - Rice County
on: 2021-04-17 18:36:16

Found these sprouting up in a few locations along our backyard that edges with the Sakatah State Trail

Posted by: Robert otis - Rochester
on: 2021-04-18 04:35:43

Spotted April 17 Zumbro south bike trail Rochester MN

Posted by: Missy Moore - Preston MN
on: 2021-04-19 12:55:37

Lots of these were blooming in the woods on 04-18-2021 Along the Root River bike trail between Preston and Lanesboro.

Posted by: Denise - Young America
on: 2021-04-20 00:43:26

I have many blooming on my 2-1/2 acre wooded property - they seemed a little early this year. Are they related to orchids?

Posted by: K. Chayka
on: 2021-04-20 06:55:27

Denise, dutchman's breeches are not related to orchids.

Posted by: Cherrie - Camden and Shetek State Park
on: 2021-04-24 15:04:55

We spotted these this week at Camden State Park along the River Trail, and many, many of them at Shetek State Park on Loon Island.

Posted by: Marcia - Carley State Park
on: 2021-05-01 07:51:23

Many are in bloom next to some early bluebells!

Posted by: Mary Wedel - Duluth - Lincoln Park area
on: 2021-05-07 22:56:51

I saw it first time last spring by some old trees and creek. In a shady area by some scrill. A great joy to see in its natural habitat

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