Hybanthus concolor (Eastern Green Violet)
|Also known as:|
|Habitat:||shade; average moisture; rich deciduous forest, wooded slopes, floodplains, ravines|
|Plant height:||12 to 30 inches|
|Wetland Indicator Status:||GP: none MW: FACU NCNE: FACU|
|MN county distribution (click map to enlarge):|
|National distribution (click map to enlarge):|
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Flowers are solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3, arising from leaf axils along most of the stem. Each flower is at the tip of a slender, hairy stalk ¼ to about 1 inch long that is jointed and nods in the upper half.
Flowers are light green to greenish-white, about ¼ inch long, somewhat bell-shaped with 5 oblong petals, the lowest of which is slightly longer and broader than the rest. Surrounding the base are 5 linear sepals that are slightly shorter than the petals. Cleistogamous flowers (self-pollinating flowers that do not open) may form in the upper leaf axils late in the season.
Leaves and stems:
Leaves are alternate, 1 to 6 inches long, ½ to 2 inches wide, mostly toothless, and usually short-hairy. The lowest leaves are smallest and often rounded at the tip, quickly becoming larger and tapering to a pointed tip, often abruptly so, and are widest at or above the middle. Leaf bases are mostly tapering to a short stalk, becoming stalkless on the upper stem. At the base of the stalk is a pair of leaf-like appendages (stipules) that are lance-linear and up to 1 inch long.
Fruit is an oblong-elliptic capsule ½ to ¾ inch long, becoming erect at maturity, containing 6 to 9 creamy white seeds.
Eastern Green Violet is one of the rarest species in Minnesota, first recorded in 1999 at a single location in Winona County. As of the DNR's 2013 rare species update, this one population of about 20 plants was the only known site, even after targeted surveys of what should be suitable habitat, and it was listed as a State Endangered species at that time. Since then another location has been discovered (see map), and perhaps more will yet be found. Its shady, undisturbed, rich forest habitat is perpetually at risk from logging as well as invasive species, Garlic Mustard and Buckthorn in particular. At the Winona location where we took our photos, we could see the weeds moving in to take over, and without ongoing management it is only a matter of time before Eastern Green Violet meets its demise along with the other natives in this once pristine habitat.
At a casual glance, the leaves might be mistaken for some other woodland species, notably one of the Stickseeds (Hackelia species) or possibly American Gromwell (Lithospermum latifolium), but a quick inspection under the leaves reveals the long-stalked, dainty, dangling flowers or oval capsules that distinguish Eastern Green Violet.
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- Eastern Green Violet plant
- Eastern Green Violet plants
- Eastern Green Violet plants
- Eastern Green Violet habitat
- habitat at risk from Garlic Mustard
- lower stem leaves can be rounded and quite small
- flower stalk joint and leaf stipule
Photos by K. Chayka and Peter M. Dziuk taken in Winona County.
Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?